Month: December 2021

Sports Legendaries – Holland Soccer StarsSports Legendaries – Holland Soccer Stars

The Holland national soccer team has produced many outstanding players over the years, some of whom have gone on to become international soccer stars. Here’s a list of Holland’s greatest soccer players, including Johan Cruyff and Ruud Gullit. These players have made a significant impact on the game and are now in the hall of fame. Let’s get to the business of it, enough with all this blabber.

Holland Soccer Stars Johan Cruyff

Cruyff is the most prominent Dutch SPBO player and has achieved legendary status for his performances at Ajax Amsterdam FC Barcelona, Feyenoord, and other clubs. Cruyff is third on a list of the greatest soccer players of all time, closely following Maradona and Pele (some even claim he was more than Maradona because Maradona had brilliance mixed with poor games while Cruyfff maintained a high standard throughout his career). With his vision and game style on the pitch, Johan Cruyff redefined modern soccer. Many football experts agree that he was one of the most intelligent and calculated players to ever touch the ground.

Holland Soccer Stars Ruud Gullit

Gullit was a key player in Holland’s soccer team during the 80s/90s. He was also one of the first to define “complete midfielder” and was one of the most prominent players. Gullit could play any position his coach placed him in in the midfield, whether he was playing defensively or as a support player or attacking midfielder. He was able to bring Holland their first ever international cup, the 1988 European Championship, with Frank Rijkaard and Marco Van Basten.

Holland Soccer Stars – Frank Rijkaard

Rijkaard, Gullit, and van Basten formed an internationally recognized midfield trio for AC Milan, his club, and his national team. AC Milan enjoyed a phenomenal period based on this triangle. They won the European Cup (today’s Champions League), twice, and the Serie A championship in two editions. The three players were also successful at the national level. Holland won the 1988 European Championship. Although Frank Rijkaard wasn’t as prominent as Ruud Gullit and van Basten, he played a more defensive role, but he was a formidable midfielder for any team.

Holland Soccer Stars Marco Van Basten

Johan Cruyff is still the greatest Holland soccer player of all time. Van Basten was close enough to reach that throne, and certainly closer than anyone else. Many people saw van Basten as Cruyff’s successor after his stellar career at Ajax, AC Milan and the goals he set for the Holland national soccer team. Van Basten, who was only 30 years old, suffered a devastating injury to his ankle in the middle of several seasons playing for AC Milan. He also won the 1988 European Championship with his country.

Holland Soccer Stars Dennis Bergkamp

Dennis Bergkamp was one of a select group of strikers. These were the guys who seem to be innocuous for 85 minutes, but then go on to destroy the opposing team. Bergkamp’s three most memorable attributes will likely be lost in soccer history: his fear of flying that prevented him from participating in overseas matches, his amazing goals, which were less than others, and his loyalty to Arsenal London, where Bergkamp played for 11 years.

Top Reasons Why Online Gambling is on a Constant Rise Top Reasons Why Online Gambling is on a Constant Rise 

The sudden popularity of online gambling has made it one of the most trending topics to discuss on the internet. Though there is not much difference between online gambling and offline gambling, there are a few aspects in which both these gambling modes differ from each other. Online gambling offers a lot of remarkable benefits which are worth considering. Let’s take a look at some of the reasons why online gambling is rising constantly:

  1. Convenience: This comes at the top when talking about the benefits of online gambling. All you need to practice online slot gacor is an active internet connection and a device ready. You can use either a phone or PC to use an online casino site where you can play your desired games and earn real money. In terms of convenience, online gambling is more popular due to endless reasons.
  2. Wide range of games: Another reason why the popularity of online gambling is on the surge is that it offers a wide new range of games to users. You can find several games like poker baccarat, blackjack, table games fishing games etc. In an online casino.
  3. Bonuses: If you know even a little about online gambling, you must know that bonuses are a crucial part of every online casino. Mostly, in online gambling, you can earn exciting bonuses like free spins, free bets, rewards and a lot more.
  4. East payment methods: In online gambling, the sites offer a lot of flexibility interns of payment to be made. The online gambling sites offer you to make payments through debit cards, credit cards, internet banking and other options.
  5. Comfort: In online gambling, the players can enjoy the comfort of their house and play whichever games they want. You don’t need to get ready and visit a casino physically.

These are just a few out of so many reasons why the popularity of online gambling is on a constant rise. If you have never tried online gambling yet, you should give it a try real soon.

Introduction to Sbobet Betting OddsIntroduction to Sbobet Betting Odds

Since the beginning of time, sports betting has been a popular activity. The world’s largest industry, sports betting, is worth millions of dollars every day. It is common to place bets on sporting events in various countries around the globe. However, it is still illegal in some countries.

The internet has made it easier to place sports bets. The internet is not only the most convenient tool, but it’s also the best way to learn about the basics of sports betting odds. The two main types of betting odds that are used in sbobet online betting are money lines and point spreads. Although wagering is the exact same for both types, point spreads are different in that the winner must have more points than the loser. These aspects are not easy to learn and you will need to take time to become familiar with the different terminologies before you can bet on live sports.

Many online sports betting sites offer only sports betting. You can find them all over the internet. These sportsbooks can be a great resource for anyone new to betting on sports. These sites not only offer betting lines but also detailed information about betting odds. These websites also offer useful information on sports betting odds.

These online sportsbooks can help you understand the odds of winning at sports betting. An online sportsbook will typically list all available games on which you can place a wager and the odds. No matter what sport you’re betting on, you should have some knowledge of the key players and team. This knowledge will be helpful when you place a wager on live betting odds.

The information on online sportsbooks can help you better understand the odds of winning. Many of these websites will allow you to compare the odds offered by different bookmakers for a specific sporting event. These websites also provide valuable information about the team and its key members, written by experts. These information can greatly assist in winning bets.

Best Online Resource For Interior DesigningBest Online Resource For Interior Designing

Interior design plays an important aspect in aesthetics of a home is a an issue. Many homeowners are seeking professionals to ensure that their home is as stunning as they would like it to see it. The only downside is that it can be somewhat expensive when you choose to hire designers for your homes. Instead of hiring them the best thing to do is research and discover ideas that you could use. With the aid of the internet, there are a myriad of things that can make you look like the fashionista.

The most reliable online sources for interior designers in mumbai have a variety of requirements regarding the room you’re looking to decorate. They should eventually lead towards a plan of action rather than distributing everything. The most reliable online resources should include all the relevant information. You should be aware of what the rooms where can be used with their designs. For a home the ideal place to start is to have a kitchen interior design. It is because the kitchens are among the most difficult areas to design and decorate. If you can do it surely you’ll be delighted with the result.

As online sources of interior design, it must not be restricted to the home only. Offices are another area to make some decor so the source must contain information for creating offices. The interior design of the office should include the information on the furniture that is appropriate to the office decor. The guide should include suggestions on of what the style and furnishings that are appropriate.

If you run your own business restaurant, you need to make sure that your customers come in. The best method to attract customers is to draw them in with the interior design. So, a website that is online should include features for restaurants. The design of the restaurant’s interior online is hard to determine what the design is expected to appear like. Along with the design the people will be able to be amazed by the technology that can be applied in their designs.

You can create a variety of things when you base your design on the web. All you have to do is ensure that the website offers you the correct information you need to use to design. If you are unable to follow the design instructions and guidelines, you can ask for help to ensure you can cover all of the information. Designing office, house and restaurants is simple and easy. All you need is some time to follow the guidelines provided by your sources.

Secret “Stay Put” tricks for wedding makeup that will lastSecret “Stay Put” tricks for wedding makeup that will last

Your greatest challenge, whether you’re a bride or a professional makeup artist, is to make the moment in front of the mirror a lasting memory. Let’s find out what makes foundation, eye-shadow and lipstick withstand the heat, tears, and kisses of summer heat.

Face first: You should never paint over wallpaper. If it starts to peel off, your new color will also be affected. The top makeup artist in bangalore should be clean and moisturized before applying makeup. Smooth surfaces allow products to blend in evenly. Open your pantry and grab your oatmeal. Mix it with some water in your hands. Massage the paste onto your face and lips, avoiding any dry patches. This is the most important step that many people skip when complaining about cakey foundation. Neutrogena Healthy skin Anti-Wrinkle cream is for oily to normal skin types. Cetaphil Ultra Hydrating Cream is recommended for dry skin. (Let moisturizers sit in for 20 minutes before applying makeup.

Prime time: Satin-lovers, listen up! The silicone-based primers may be popular, but they are not the best for long-lasting wedding makeup. These products are silky in texture, but can also create a barrier between skin and foundation that prevents makeup from sticking to skin. Many airbrush foundations, which are popular among brides, don’t work well with silicone primers.

Product pals: Korres Face Primer is a silicone-free primer that can be used on normal to dry skin types. Use Smashbox Anti-Shine for oily skin. Apply a thin layer of Milk of Magnesia or Smashbox Anti-Shine to oily skin. (Yes, I said it-both products are powerful in oil control thanks to the ingredient magnesium silicate).

Eyes For You: What’s the best way to get a budge-proof, crease-resistant eye-shadow? Apply moisturizer to the lower lashline to prepare your concealer. Do not apply to your upper lid, where the shadow goes, after your cleansing routine. Avoid using concealer or foundation on your upper lids to create shadow. They are too emollient. So what should you use? There are hundreds of eye-shadow primers on the market, but many are too creamy or slippery with silicone. Camouflage products and primers can be counted on to be waterproof. Products to consider: Laura Mercier Eye Basics or Makeup Forever Full-Cover Extreme Camouflage Cream.

Ace your Base: Oil means slide. Even if your skin is dry, you should choose oil-free foundations. You can moisturize your skin as often as you like before applying foundation. To ensure that your oils are properly managed, you can powder the skin before applying foundation. For sheer coverage, you can use MAC Face and Body Foundation or Kett Hydro Airbrush Foundation. Avoid foundations that contain SPF. Their active ingredient can cause flash attacks in photography, making the face look pale and ashy.

Conceal Deal What if I cry! This is the bride’s first reaction when the concealer for under-eyes comes out. Some concealers can withstand the tears while others go away. The liquid wand formulas are less effective against watershed, so make sure you grab the cream/camouflage formulas in tubes that are waterproof. Product buddies: Makeup for Ever Full Cover Camouflage (not for under eye but it’s a favorite), Kett Fixx Creme.

Place Setting The step of setting or sealing any wet makeup is second-nature for most professional makeup artists. This idea may seem new to the average woman. To prevent liquid or creamy makeup from moving, you should finish any area with a sheer powder. This will allow the colors to glide more easily. Apply the blot powder to the eyelid foundation and base. Product pal: MAC Blot Powder (compact)

Color Power: High Pigment are words that describe the best products that offer strong enough colour intensity to stand out and last on the skin. While a bride does not want to look clownish, a subtle wash should be achieved. Only the most pigmented products can pass the test. Cream formulas won’t last as long as powder eye-shadows or blushes. Consider how many times the testers have to be run over your back before the colors stand out. If you do this more than once, weak pigments will quickly fade. For extra color strength, you can set a cream blush or eye-shadow with a layer powder of the same color. Eyeshadows and blushes from MAC, Makeup Forever, and Annabelle, MAC, and Nars are all good product pals.

Pencil Pushing Why does my eyeliner smudge Many women are shocked to learn that just stroking an eyeliner pencil does not guarantee that it will stay there for a few hours. Pencils can smudge easily if left alone. They are waxy and creamy products. You can lock in their pigment by tracing over them using eye-shadow of the same color. Use only waterproof pencils. If you don’t like the sharp lines of liquid liners, then go for the gel liners. These can also be used with shadow. Products pals: Annabelle Smoothliners and Makeup Forever Aqua Eyes pencils. Bobbi Brown Long-wear Gel Liners.

Lash Blaster: Give your eyelashes a long-term lift with double the amount of curling. After mascara is applied, curl the lashes before you apply mascara. To ensure that your curler doesn’t bend too much, heat it with a blowdryer. Dust the curler with powder to prevent it from sticking to your lashes. If you don’t want to see Niagara-style tears, you can leave the mascara off your lower lashes. Product friends: Shu Uemura eyelash curler (the Cadillac of curlers), Cover girl Lash Blast mascara (one the few waterproof formulas that’s not too watery).

Lip Lotion: Many brides swear they don’t use lip gloss. While this can work if you keep it handy for quick touch-ups, it is not practical on the big day. Because they are strong in pigment, lipsticks are a popular choice. They won’t dry your lips out unlike long-wear stains. To block out your natural lip color, apply foundation. This will allow you to reveal the true color of the lipstick. Blot powder can be used to set that. Use a pencil base to color the lips, then use a lipstick of the same shade. To remove excess oils from the lips, use a tissue. For highlight, apply a second coat of lipstick, followed by a lighter blotting. You can apply a lip gloss before your gloss. These are alcohol-based, but they can remove the shine from your lipstick and leave it matte. Lip pencils from MAC, Maybelline and Rimmel. Lipsticks by MAC. NYC Lip Sealant

Brow Freeze – Brows are often overlooked in makeovers. However, they demand as much attention and as much as any other feature. Make sure they look natural by filling them with powder and not pencil. Clear waterproof mascara can be used to prevent the shadows from running. Any brand of waterproof clear mascara will do. If you still have it, Caboodles is a favourite.

Some brides believe that the products you use are what makes them gasp when they look in the mirror at 2:20 am to see how well-placed their faces remain. Others will argue that it is the way you apply it. Another group will praise order and the way the art must follow a path of logic in an organized step-by-step process to achieve the highest levels of endurance. All of these are true. You don’t want to miss these steps, whether you’re a professional or a bride creating your look.

Computer Knowledge (Literacy)Computer Knowledge (Literacy)


The world has become a global village thanks to the advancements in ICT (Information Communication Technology). Computers play a significant role in this integration, as they have helped to integrate regional economies, societies, cultures, and transportation systems.

The global network allows for the integration of nations and regions around the globe. This makes the world look like a village. In this village, the presidents of various nations act as clan heads.

As it is, any thing that has an effect on one clan will have an impact on the other in this large village. This is exactly what is happening today in the world. The international price of crude oil and travels are affected by the Niger Delta crisis in Nigeria.

Globalization is the joining together of different countries economically through education, society, and politics. Citizens view themselves not only as their national identity, but as part of the global whole.

Globalization refers to the process of interaction and integration between people, companies and governments from different countries. It is driven by a combination economic, socio-culture and political factors. The Internet (Information Communication Technology) plays a significant role in this process.

Globalization has a profound impact on the environment, culture, political systems, economic development, prosperity, and human physical well-being.

There are very few places that a person cannot reach via the internet or telephone. Modern communication means that citizens of a country are more aware of the wider world and can be influenced by different cultures.

Space and time are less important than ever, and language barriers are being broken as people around the globe communicate via trade, social Internet forums, media sources and many other means.

Globalization has made the world a global village. Global Community members are also called Global Village residents. The Internet is a major medium that has brought people from all countries closer together. Internet refers to the worldwide network of Computers that allow people (Global Community) to communicate with one another. Internet is just one aspect of ICT.

Globalization has been driven by ICT. Particularly, advances in Information Technology have transformed economic life. Information Technologies offer all economic actors-consumers and investors, new tools to identify and pursue economic opportunities. They include faster and more informed analysis of economic trends worldwide, easier transfers of assets and collaboration with distant counterparts.

As you read this article, people all over the globe are using the internet to communicate with each other and achieve their goals. The Internet is used for everything: selling, buying, school admission and registration, booking airline travel, research of any type, banking, email, searching for employment, information, and so on.

Be a part of the Global Community

As you can see, there is no way for anyone in the present world to succeed if they are not part of the global community. You must be a part of the global community to be eligible:

1. Be Computer Literate

2. Learn how to use the Internet

3. A personal computer (desktop or laptop) is available for purchase

Computer literacy

Computer literacy can be defined as the ability to use computers and technology effectively. Computer literacy also includes a good understanding of how computers work. This is for computer engineers or advanced users who want to become Computer engineers. The first step to joining the global community is knowing and being able to use Computers.

Why is Computer Literacy Important?

In this age of technology, there are many things that you will use the Computer directly or indirectly for. It could be used directly by you or someone else. Here are some reasons you should be computer literate:

1. Employers will require you to be computer literate when you are looking for a job.

2. Computers are a standard feature in most businesses. Computers are used in banks, for example, to perform banking transactions and look up customer account information. Computers can be used in auto repair shops to diagnose electronic and other problems with cars.

3. Schools use computers to register students, admit them, do accounting and keep track of their records. The school libraries house a database of books. No more library cards.

4. Some Hospitals and Clinics store patient information in computers. To treat a patient, doctors must be able to retrieve this information.

5. You can send and receive electronic mails by learning how to use the Internet and Computers. Or you can hire someone to do it.

The list goes on. You should learn how to use the personal computer now. This will allow you to get a job, and will also help you move up in your career.

It does not necessarily mean that you have to be able to use every piece of software available. This does not mean that you should be able to program or network computers. It is enough to be familiar with the basics.

1. How to Start the Computer

2. How to use the Operating System (OS) on your Computer, Windows, Mac, or Linux.

3. How to open Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Application Software. Save, Create, and Open Files

4. How to exit or close an application software and open another.

5. How to safely shut down your computer after use.

6. How to use the Internet to browse the Internet and send and receive emails.

7. How to play video and listen to music on your computer

8. How to manage your personal computer (PC)

You will find a place for the computer in your brain once you have learned how to use it. You will no longer be afraid of learning how to use the computer.

It was a time when I was trying to teach a good friend how to use Microsoft Word and the Mouse. It wasn’t easy. It didn’t take her long to get started because she was determined to learn. I visited her office one day to check on her. But the typewriter that she loved so much was now under the table. Then, I asked her how the mouse was doing. She smiled. Computer Networking was her masters program. This is the joy in learning how to use the PC.

Healthy foods can help you achieve your weight loss goalsHealthy foods can help you achieve your weight loss goals

Healthy eating habits will help you lose weight, as we have already said. Someone may be curious about what healthy food is. Healthy foods are to me the green vegetables and fruits. These are also known as clean foods because they are low in calories, clean, and leave no residues. Fruits and vegetables are healthier than high-calorie foods and their fatty cousins. They don’t leave any residues, which is why I consider them healthy foods. Clean foods are foods such as chicken, turkey, and fish.

These meats have a lower fat and calorie count than raw beef. Clean foods include lentils, peas, and dry beans. The body can slow absorb complex carbohydrates and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and this will help you lose weight.

Because processed foods are not as nutritious and do not provide the same satisfaction as natural foods, we feel compelled to eat more. This is similar to addiction. We know that this is not good for our weight loss and maintenance goals. One of my favorite books on natural foods was about how bad foods such as drugs leave behind their harmful residue of waste after they are eaten. This causes us to eat more to mask the toxic effects of those residues. When we stop eating, our stomach goes into cleansing mode and all the poisons rise to the surface.

This can cause us to feel sick or weak. I’ve found that people who experience this will eat more food to stop their stomach from cleansing and thus stop poisons from rising to the surface. With this stopping, we are able to feel better from the weakness caused by the food residues turning to poison. This effect is most common in people who fast for detoxification purposes. However, it can also be experienced by those who aren’t fasting. This is why junk food eaters tend to eat more. The purpose of this is to prevent them from becoming sick from the poisons in the stomachs.

Although food manufacturers argue that preservatives are necessary to protect our food, it is not a good idea. It has led to many people’s health problems. Our biggest nutritional error has been to avoid foods in their natural state. They have been replaced with processed foods that are more durable, easier to make and distribute, and easier to store and use.

When I go to the grocery, I see apple Juice without any fiber. Then, when I go into a health food shop, I see apple Juice with fiber. The apple juice with fiber is expensive so they are only available in specialty stores. This means that most people don’t have access to healthy apple juice. Because they contain fiber, the best apple juices are good for your health and weight loss. Apple Juices without fiber are often full of added sugars, and tend to have more calories than regular apples or apple Juices with fiber. This means that processed foods are often less nutritious than their healthy, unprocessed counterparts.

Natural foods are great for our health. They can help us lose weight and stay healthy. It’s rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber, and cancer-fighting antioxidants. These foods can help lower the risk of developing diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. They also help to lose weight and keep you healthy.

Foods that have been processed can be considered bad food. They are often unhealthy for us and are high in salt, sugars and trans fats. Nutritionists will tell you that foods with outer skin contain more nutrients than the inner food. Unfortunately, the outer part of food is often discarded as not suitable for consumption. For example, potato’s outer skin is much more nutritious than its inner food. However, most people discard the outer skin and eat only the starch. They are low in fiber and high in food dyes, which can cause illness.

To be healthy, the human body requires a clean environment. Eating foods laced with chemicals and other ingredients will only make things worse. As we have seen, healthy foods high in natural fiber and nutrients can be good for us. They can help us lose weight, stay healthy, and keep us thin. You will not feel hungry and will be able to avoid hunger pangs. It is not the taste or quantity that is important, but the quality and health of the food that is consumed. This will reduce or eliminate the cravings for unhealthy foods.

How to get your kids to eat healthy foodHow to get your kids to eat healthy food

Your kids will eat healthy food if you have patience, perseverance, and some creativity. Your children are some of the most picky eaters you will ever meet. If you can tolerate it, children will eat healthier food choices. This shouldn’t be the case. It is the right time to teach and encourage children to eat healthy food. Healthy food for children includes a wide variety of food options from each of the four main food groups. You’re good to go if you can balance all four food groups, dairy, meat protein and fruits, as well as grains. These are some helpful tips to help you get started.

One Step at a Time

Your children shouldn’t get stuck in a food rut. You shouldn’t serve the same dish over and over. You can start by looking through magazines and browsing recipes online. Each week, new flavors, combinations, and recipes are introduced to the kitchen. Start with greens. You can also cut new vegetables and add them to their favorite foods like soup, pasta, or omelet. You can also try new ways to cook vegetables with your favorite meals every week.

Get your kids involved in food preparation

Bring your children along to the grocery store and encourage them to pick their own fruits or vegetables. Invite your children to help you prepare healthy food for them. You don’t have to be too prominent. Ask them to help you wash the vegetables, make the soup or make the pasta. This is a great way to teach your children basic cooking skills and make them appreciate the joy of cooking. Research has shown that children are more likely than adults to eat food they help prepare.

Don’t Eliminate High-Fat Foods

Moderation is the key to healthy food for children. You don’t have to ban ice cream and fries completely from your children’s diet. You will make your kids crave these foods more. You need to make sure that they are aware of what is good for them. You can always indulge in sugary desserts and oily foods from time to time. You can teach them how to eat smaller portions of these foods or you can find healthier alternatives that still offer the same taste without compromising the nutritional content.

Be Creative with Plating and Serving

All of us know how kids are attracted to visuals, especially colors. This principle can be applied to food. Serve them as many color options as possible when you prepare their food. Even create art with their vegetables and fruits. Invite them to help you create visually appealing meals. Vegetables and fruits are already vibrant ingredients. You just need to be creative in plating and serving. Kids love dips. Make a tasty, low-fat vegetable dip to encourage your kids to eat their veggies and fruits.

Don’t bribe your kids into eating their vegetables

Contrary to popular belief, children can be bribed to eat vegetables. Don’t bargain with your children with sweet treats, such as a sugary dessert after eating vegetables. Negative food associations will only increase when vegetables are not a requirement and desserts are enjoyable, delicious rewards. These negative associations are often carried by children into adulthood. Encourage them to try one bite. Don’t give up. It may not be something they like immediately, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that they will hate it forever.

A Role Model for Healthy Eating

This is an important aspect of teaching your children healthy eating habits. If you set a positive example, your children will be more likely to follow your lead. Show them what they’re missing. Let them know that fruits and vegetables are delicious and healthy. If you’re feeling adventurous, you can use your acting skills. Children are keen observers and attentive to the needs of their elders. As they get older, be the fun-loving and healthy eater that they admire.

A Beginner’s Guide To Computer ForensicsA Beginner’s Guide To Computer Forensics

Computer forensics refers to the process of analyzing, collecting and reporting digital information in a legal way. It is used to detect and prevent crime, and can also be used in disputes involving digital evidence. Computer forensics is comparable to other forensic disciplines in terms of examination stages and faces the same issues.

This guide
This guide is neutral in its approach to computer forensics. This guide is not intended to promote any company or product or link to specific legislation. It also isn’t biased in law enforcement or commercial computerforensics. This guide is intended for non-technical audiences and gives a high-level overview of computer forensics. Although the term “computer” is used in this guide, the concepts can be applied to any device that can store digital information. These methods are not intended to be used as a guideline or a recommendation. The Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license only permits copying and publishing of the entire or part of the article.

Computer forensics
Computer forensics can be used in a variety of areas, including disputes and crime. Computer forensics has been used extensively by law enforcement agencies, who have been the most prolific users. Computers can be considered a “scene of crime”, such as hacking [1] or denial-of-service attacks [2]; or they could contain evidence in the form emails, internet history or documents that are relevant to crimes like murder, kidnapping, fraud, and drug trafficking. Investigators may not only be interested in the contents of emails, documents, and other files but also the metadata [3] that is associated with these files. Computer forensic examinations can reveal the date and time a document appeared on a computer. It may also reveal whether it was edited or saved last.

Computer forensics has been used by commercial organizations in a number of cases, including;

Intellectual Property Theft
Industrial espionage
Employment disputes
Fraud investigations
Matrimonial problems
Investigations into Bankruptcy
Workplace email and internet usage that is inappropriate
Compliance with regulations

Evidence must be reliable and not prejudicial in order to be admissible. This means that computer forensic examiners should keep the admissibility of evidence at the forefront of their minds at all times. The Association of Chief Police Officers Good Practice Guide to Computer Based Electronic Evidence, or the ACPO Guide, has been widely accepted as a guideline. The ACPO Guide is intended for United Kingdom law enforcement, but its core principles can be applied to any computer forensics under any legislature. Below are the four principles of this guide (with no reference to law enforcement):

It is not appropriate to alter data stored on computers or storage media that could be used in court.
If a person feels the need to access original data stored on a computer or other storage media, they must be competent and able to provide evidence explaining the significance and implications of their actions.
A trail of audits or any other record should be kept. A third party should be able examine the processes and produce the same result.
The investigation’s head is responsible for ensuring the law and principles are followed.

Summary: No changes should be made or added to the original. However, if necessary, the examiner should know what they are doing so that they can record it.

Live acquisition
Principle 2 may be a question. In what circumstances would a computer forensic investigator make changes to the computer of a suspect? The computer forensic examiner would normally make a copy of (or acquire) information from a device that is off. To make a exact copy of the original storage media [5], a write-blocker[4] is used. This copy would be used by the examiner to make a copy of the original storage medium.

Sometimes, however, it may not be possible or desirable to turn a computer off. If the owner would suffer significant financial or other losses, it may not be possible for a computer to be switched off. If the computer is susceptible to losing valuable evidence, it may not be a good idea to turn it off. In these cases, the computer forensic examiner will need to perform a “live acquisition” which involves running a small program on suspect’s computer to copy or acquire the data to examiner’s hard disk.

The examiner can run such a program, attach a destination drive to the suspect’s computer, and make any changes or additions to the computer’s state that were not there before. These actions are admissible so long as the examiner records them, is aware of their effects and can explain their consequences.

Stages for an Examination
The computer forensic examination process is divided into six stages for the purposes of this article. They are listed in chronological order but it is important to be flexible during an examination. An example: During the analysis stage, the examiner might find a new lead that warrants further computer examinations. This would result in a return to evaluation.

It is an important, but often overlooked, stage of the examination process. It can also include teaching clients about system readiness. For example, forensic examinations are more effective if the server’s built in auditing or logging systems have been turned on. Examiners can benefit from prior organisation in many areas. This includes training, regular testing, verification, and dealing with unexpected issues (e.g. what to do if child pornography appears during a commercial job), and making sure that your on-site acquisition kit works properly.

The evaluation stage involves clear instructions, risk analysis, and the allocation of resources and roles. A risk analysis may be used by law enforcement to determine the likelihood that a suspect will become a physical threat and how best they can deal with it. Businesses must also be aware of safety and health issues. Their evaluation should also consider reputational and financial risk when accepting a project.

Below is the main part of the collection phase, acquisition. This stage includes identifying, documenting and securing the scene if acquisition is to take place on-site. This stage usually includes interviews or meetings with people who might have information that could be useful in the examination. These could include end users, managers and those responsible for providing services to computers. This is where the ‘bagging and tag’ audit trail begins. All materials should be sealed in unique, tamper-evident bags. Also, it is important to transport the material safely and securely to the laboratory of the examiner.

Each job is unique and the details of each case will affect how analysis is done. The client will often receive feedback from the examiner during the analysis. This dialogue may lead to a new path or narrowing down to particular areas. Analyses must be thorough, objective, impartial, recorded and repeated within the allocated time and resources. Computer forensics analysis can be done with many tools. We believe that an examiner should choose any tool that they are comfortable with, as long as it can be justified. Computer forensic tools must perform their intended function. Examiners should regularly calibrate and test the tools before any analysis can take place. Double-tool verification is a way to confirm the integrity of results during analysis. If tool A finds artefacts X and Y, then tool B should reproduce these results.

How to wisely buy a new computerHow to wisely buy a new computer

Your computer has stopped working in 2012! Is it worth fixing or buying a new computer instead? A new computer is a better option if the computer is older than 5 years. Computers manufactured between 5 and 9 years ago often have failing hardware that must be replaced. Continue reading to learn how to choose the right computer for you.

It is very important to start with the basics when buying a computer. These questions will help you decide your initial purchase strategy.

1. Ask yourself, “How much money can I afford?” Computer prices can range from $200-$400, $450-$800, and $900 to $1000.

2. Next, choose the type of computer (or style) that is most suitable for you. There are three types of computers: tablet, laptop and desktop. They differ in size, portability and functionality. The most portable computer is the desktop. These computers are ideal for heavy work and multiple displays. The size and portability of laptops can vary. Larger laptops have a 17-inch screen, making them easy to carry around for short trips. Although they have the same capabilities as a desktop, the computing power of big laptops is less than that of desktops to save battery power. The display is also smaller and has a lower resolution than desktop computers. Tablet computers are portable. Tablet computers are the most portable. However, they can do much more with a smaller screen. Tablets are portable, powerful information tools that go one step beyond a smartphone.

3. The timeless question remains: Should I buy an Apple computer or another? Other computer options include the Windows 7 operating system and Android operating system computers. Linux computers are also available. Linux is a free software operating system under the General Public License. Linux computers can be used by everyday users in the same way as Apple and Windows computers. Linux computers are equivalent to Windows, with the exception that you pay only for the hardware. This is a significant savings over Apple or Windows computers.

Apple computers are highly regulated. Apple computers are very reliable and have few issues. Malicious software rarely targets Apple computers. Every word an Apple owner is able to say about their Apple is true. They look beautiful. They are also very expensive. If an Apple computer malfunctions, it is a major problem. If your Apple computer is still under warranty, you can schedule an appointment at the Apple store to have it repaired. You will also have to pay a lot for repairs.

Windows 7 computers, however, are more like the Wild West. Anything can happen in the Wild West. Windows 7 computers can be purchased with a variety of hardware and software options. Windows 7 computers are most vulnerable to malware, spyware and viruses. Windows computers are the most popular target for attack, as they are sold more than any other computer. Apple computers can also be infected with viruses but less frequently than Windows computers. Windows computers aren’t necessarily cheaper than Linux computers, but they can be very affordable.

4. The last question is: Which computer manufacturer do your prefer? Each manufacturer approaches selling computers differently. I prefer manufacturers that don’t add extra features beyond what is required by Windows or the operating system. Many frills are designed to sell you something or provide functions that are redundant with the operating systems. They occupy screen space and get in the way of what your doing. HP computers, for example, are similar to Big MACs. They taste great, but have a lot more software fat. The Lenovo computer is like a bank vault. These computers are secure but difficult to repair because of their security. All computers have an annoying dock or launcher. This takes up much screen space and does not add any value beyond what Windows already provides. It’s always cheaper to buy a package rather than build a custom-built computer. Because computer components are purchased in large quantities by manufacturers, it is more expensive to purchase custom parts than to buy a package system from them.

Once you have established your strategy, it is time for you to search for a computer. This is where the Internet can be used to do the initial shopping, and then you can go to the store to make your final purchase. Visit the website of a local computer retailer such as Best Buy and Staples. You can search their site by the type or style of computer you are looking for. You should be able to select from a variety of computers on the site. You can sort them by “Best Selling” or check out the “Customer Reviews”. Consider how the price compares with your budget. Many retail stores allow you to compare the features of three computers side-by-side. Take care to choose three computers for comparison.

This method was used to compare three moderately priced desktop computers from one retailer. The prices ranged between $429.99 and $699.99. The $429.99 computer had a 3.3 GHz Intel i3 processor chip, 6 GB RAM and a 1 TB hard drive. The AMD 2.4GHz CPU chip was used in the 549.99 computer. It had 8GB RAM and a slower 5,400 RPM 1.5 TB drive. The computer cost $699.99 and had an Intel 3.0GHz CPU chip. It also had 6GB RAM and a 1 TB drive with 7,200 rpm. These systems do not perform any better than the less expensive ones. Performance seems to be identical for all computers as long as they have the same hardware features.

All systems were running the most recent DDR3 RAM. A computer with 8GB RAM might perform better than one with 6GB RAM. All these computers will perform significantly faster than a Windows XP computer with only 2 GB RAM. Special performance testing programs can determine the performance difference between a AMD CPU chip computer with 2.4 GHz and an Intel i5 CPU chip machine with 3.3 GHz, but most people don’t notice it. People do notice that AMD chips computers are usually $100 cheaper than Intel CPU chip computer computers.